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>>Sahabah (Companions of Muhammad S)
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R was one of the cousins of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, from his mother’s side. Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R was a Sahabi (Companion of Muhammad S).

The Messenger of Allah S began to take the message of Islam to his friends and many of them accepted Islam.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R is one of the as-Sabiqun al-Awwalun (Early Muslims). He was also one of the 'Asharah Mubashsharah (Ten, who were giving the news of Heavens in their lifetime).

Sa'd
bin Abu Waqqas R converted to Islam because of the Da’wah (Invitation) work by done by Abu Bakr R, a close friend of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S and the first adult male to become a Muslim.
First person to convert to Islam was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid R, the first wife of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S.

Most of the early Muslims were also from the Quraysh tribe, the tribe of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S.
These early Muslims were tortured by the Quraysh of Makkah. The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S allowed these Muslims to migrate out of Makkah to save their lives. Many Muslims migrated to Habash (Ethiopia) for the first time, in the year 9BH (Before Hijrah).
The Muslims, who stayed back in Makkah, continued to face the torture of Quraysh. They boycotted the clans of Banu Hashim and Bani Muttalib, from Makkah.

The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S belonged to the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe. Bani Muttalib was named after Al Muttalib bin ‘Abd Manaf, the younger brother of Hashim bin ‘Abd Manaf.

Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R did not belong to either of the two Quraysh clans. He voluntarily chose to stay with the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, in the Shi’b (Mountain Pass) Abu Talib, outside Makkah and face the hardships under the open skies. During the boycott, no one was allowed to trade with of Banu Hashim and Bani Muttalib, which meant days of starvation because of lack of food.

This boycott continued for three years. Banu Hashim and Banu Muttalib Finally, the Muslims and the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S migrated to Yathrib (Madinah). Islam prospered in Madinah. Almost entire population of Madinah and its neighboring areas accepted Islam.
Muslims of Madinah, helped their Muhajir (Immigrant) brothers and sisters. This is why Muhammad S called them Ansar. Ansar means helper.
Muslims established their first Government in Madinah. Quraysh of Makkah did not like it.

They assembled an army of one thousand (1,000) well-armed and experienced warriors. They marched towards Madinah, to finish Islam, once for all.
They were met by only three hundred thirteen (313), ill equipped Muslims.
The Muslims and Quraysh fought near the wells of Badr. Battle of Badr was the first major confrontation between Muslims and the Quraysh. The battle of Badr took place on the 17th of Ramadan (Ninth month of Islamic calendar) of the year 2H (Hijrah). The Quraysh were badly defeated by Muslims.
Before the battle of Badr, the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S sent Muslims to reconnaissance missions to keep an eye over the movement of  Quraysh caravans that passed from the vicinity of Madinah. One such team was led by 'Ubaydah bin al Harith R. They were sent to a well in the Valley of Rabigh.
Abu Sufyan, the Quraysh leader came there with two hundred (200) riders.

Muslims and Quraysh came face to face, but both of them withdrew, without any fight.
Before leaving the place, Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R shot an arrow towards the enemy. This was the first arrow shot for the cause of Islam.

Some time later, the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S sent another team of his Sahabah (Companions) in the month of Rajab (Seventh month of Islamic calendar) of the year 2H (Hijrah), on a mission. This team was led by 'Abdullah bin Jahsh R. Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R and 'Utbah bin Ghazwan R were also in that team. The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S had given them a letter and had instructed them to read the letter after travelling for two (2) days.

The letter asked them to go to Nakhalah and keep a watch on the movement of trading caravans of the Quraysh.


The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S also told them that no one should be forced to go to Nakhalah.
'Abdullah bin Jahsh R and his team went to Nakhalah. On the last day of Rajab (Seventh month of Islamic calendar), they saw a Quraysh caravan.

Rajab
(Seventh month of Islamic calendar) was one of the four months, considered sacred by the Arabs, before Islam. They did not travel or fight in these months.


These four sacred months were:

1. Muharram                (First month of the Islamic calendar)

2. Rajab                        (Seventh month of the Islamic calendar)

3. Dhul Qa'dah             (Eleventh month of the Islamic calendar)

4. Dhul Hijjah   (Twelfth month of the Islamic calendar)
Islam also considered the same four months sacred. The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year) - so ordained by Him the day He created the Heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred.

Surah
(Chapter) at-Taubah (The Repentance)      The Qur-an 9:36
These old traditions were respected and followed even after the advent of Islam.
Muslims, who spotted the Quraysh caravan, were confused. They knew that they should not be fighting in the sacred month but they did not want to waste this opportunity either. Finally, the decided to attack the caravan of Quraysh. They seized the property of the caravan and captured two of the Quraysh. During the tussle one Quraysh was killed and another ran away. The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S had specifically advised them not to attack the Quraysh, as he had sent this team only to look for the movements of their caravans.
Although Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R and 'Utbah bin Ghazwan R were a part of that team, they did not participate in the attack because they were not there at that time. Some of their camels had strayed away from the caravan and they had gone away from their team in search of their camels.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R and 'Utbah bin Ghazwan R were captured by another team of Quraysh. Later, these two Sahabah (Companions of Muhammad S) were released in exchange of the two Quraysh, which were captured by 'Abdullah bin Jahsh R.
The Quraysh blamed the Messenger of Allah Muhammad S, for breaking an age-old tradition of fighting in a sacred month. The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S was hurt by the actions of some of his Sahabah (Companions).
The Sahabah (Companions of Muhammad S) were also saddened by the action of 'Abdullah bin Jahsh R and his party. Some time later, they were pardoned by Allah (God) and His Rasul (Messenger).

Before the beginning of the battle of Badr, the Messenger of Allah Muhammad S sent a team of his Sahabah (Companions) towards the wells of Badr on a reconnaissance mission. 'Ali bin Abu Talib R, Zubayr bin al Awwam R and Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R were sent there to watch the movements of Quraysh.
Near the wells of Badr, they found two young shepherd boys grazing their cattle. Those boys were grazing their cattle. These boys told the Muslim scouts that the Quraysh army is camping on the other side of the hill.
The battle of Badr was won by the Muslims. This battle was fought in the year 2H (Hijrah). Many leaders of the Quraysh were killed in this battle.
One year later, Quraysh returned to avenge their defeat. They fought the Muslims again near the mountain of ‘Uhud. During the battle of 'Uhud with Quraysh, the wells of Badr , the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S was injured. Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R was among the few Sahabah  (Companions of Muhammad S), who shielded him with their own bodies. Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R was shooting arrows at Quraysh and the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S was passing arrows to him.
Muslims suffered heavy losses in the battle of 'Uhud. Some of the tribes living around Madinah were pleased to see the losses of Muslims. They became bold and began attacking Muslims.
Muslims found out that Banu (Family of) Asad were planning to attack Madinah. In the month of Muharram (First month of Islamic calendar) of the year 4H (Hijrah), the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S appointed ‘Abdullah (Abu Salamah) R as the leader of a team of Muslims and sent them to reason with Banu (Family of) Asad. Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R and Abu 'Ubaydah bin Jarrah R were also in that team. Banu (Family of) Asad decided to fight the Muslims. As a result, the Muslims defeated them.

During the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, almost the entire Arabian Peninsula had embraced Islam.
After the demise of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, Abu Bakr R became the Khalifah (Caliph) of Muslims in the year 11H (Hijrah). 'Iraq was conquered by the Muslims during his Khilafah (Term of a Caliph).
After Abu Bakr R, 'Umar bin Khattab R became the second Khalifah (Caliph) of Muslims. During his period, the Islamic State expanded vastly.
In Ramadan (Ninth month of Islamic calendar) of the year 13H (Hijrah), the Persian army defeated Muslims, in the battle of Maruhah. One year later, Muslim army took their revenge at the battle of Buwayb. This battle took place in Ramadan (Ninth month of Islamic calendar) of the year 14H (Hijrah). Thousands of Persians were killed in this battle. Their commander, Mahran was also killed. Yazd Gard became the new emperor of the Persian Empire in place of Puran Dakht.
Because of changes in Persia, 'Iraq revolted against Muslims. 'Umar bin Khattab R gathered a large army. Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R was chosen to lead the Muslim army.

Sa'd
bin Abu Waqqas R fought the first battle with Persians at Qadasiyah.
Rustam was the commander of Persian army. When Rustam saw the large Muslim army, he got scared and did not want to fight them. He tried to trick Muslims by sending them offers of peace.
In Muharram (First month of the Islamic calendar) of the year 14H (Hijrah), the two armies fought.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R had fallen sick at that time and was even unable to walk. He deputed Khalid bin 'Urtafah to command the forces in the battleground. Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R stayed back in his tent. From the tent, he observed the battle and instructed Khalid bin 'Urtafah. Whenever needed, he wrote down his instructions on a sheet of paper. Then he rolled the paper in the shape of a ball and arranged to reach it to his deputy. This battle continued for three days. Muslims fought bravely and eventually Hilal, a Muslim soldier killed Rustam. The Persian army ran away to a place called Babal and tried to regroup to prepare for the war once gain. This time, Firozan took the command of the Persian army.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R marched to Babal in 15H (Hijrah). On the way he conquered the city of Burs. The chief of Burs named Bistam surrendered to the Muslims without offering any resistance. Persian army retreated from Babal also and sought refuge at  Kuthi.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R camped at Babal and sent a small force to Kuthi to fight the Persians. The battle of Kuthi started with a duel. The chief of Kuthi, Shahar Yar, a very strong man, challenged the Muslims for a duel. Muslims sent Nabil, a slave of the Banu (Family of) Tamim to fight him. Although Nabil was not as strong as Shahar Yar, he managed to kill Shahar Yar in their duel.
The Muslim army won Kuthi and Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R marched forward to Bahtah Sher, a place famous for a tiger. Bahtah Sher was close to the Persian capital city of Mada”in.

Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R surrounded the city of Bahtah Sher and laid a siege that continued for two months. One day Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R and his army decided to attack the city. The Muslims conquered the city of Bahtah Sher on the same day.

Now the Muslims marched towards the Persian capital, Mada-“in.

The mighty river Dajalah was a barrier between the Muslim army and the city of Mada-“in. The Persians had destroyed all the boats, which were used to cross the river. They also destroyed all the bridges over the Dajalah river. At that time, river Dajalah was flooded. Persians were sure that Muslims would not dare to cross the river and were confident of their safety.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R analyzed the situation and put his horse into the river. He ordered his army to follow him. The entire Muslim army followed him. The Muslim army consisting of thirty thousand soldiers crossed the river Dajalah riding their horses.
It seemed that they were crossing a field instead of a flooded river. It was a unique display of courage and bravery. Persians could not believe to see columns after columns of the Muslim army cross the turbulent river. They got very scared because such feat was not expected such an action from humans. Yazd Gard, the emperor of the Persian Empire also fled. He had earlier sent his family to a safe place.
The Muslim army entered Mada-“in under the command of Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R and no one resisted them. This was the beginning of the end of the Persian Empire in 'Iraq. Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R removed the famous royal throne from the royal court and installed a Mimbar (Pulpit) in its place. The palatial royal court was turned into a humble place for prayers.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R led the first ever Jumu'ah Salah (Friday Prayers) in 'Iraq.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R transferred the treasures of Mada-“in to the treasury at Madinah. He remained camped in Mada-“in and sent Hashim bin 'Utbah with twelve thousand Muslims to Jalula'.
Jalula' was conquered by Muslims in 16H (Hijrah) after eighty attempts. Thousands of Persian soldiers got trapped in trenches, they had dug for their defense. Muslims got war trophies worth thirty million Dirhams in that battle.

In 17H (Hijrah), Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R sent 'Ayyaz bin Ghanam with an army of five thousand men to Jazirah. 'Ayyaz bin Ghanam soon conquered Jazirah.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R became the conqueror of 'Iraq and was subsequently appointed its Amil (Governor). He proved to be an able administrator.
Unlike other victorious armies, Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R and his fellow Muslims behaved very well with the local population. Most of the tribes converted to Islam, after seeing its true face in the behavior of Muslims.
In Dhul-Hijjah (Twelfth month of Islamic calendar) of 23H (Hijrah), Firoze (Abu Lulu), a slave of Persian origins, belonging to Mughirah bin Sha'bah, stabbed 'Umar bin Khattab R, the second Khalifah (Caliph) of Muslims. 'Umar bin Khattab R was seriously injured. On his death bed he named a panel of six persons. From which the next Khalifah (Caliph) of Muslims was to be elected. Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R was one of those six panelists.

Others in that panel were 'Ali bin Abu Talib R, 'Uthman bin 'Affan R, Zubayr bin al Awwam R, Talhah bin ‘Ubaydullah R, and ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Awf R.

'Umar bin Khattab R had appointed his son, ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar R as an arbitrator and not as a candidate. He instructed his son to use his arbitration in favor of the candidate whom ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Awf R supported.

'Uthman bin 'Affan R was elected unanimously as the third Khalifah (Caliph) of Muslims.
Introduction
'Ashrah Mubashshrah
  Talhah bin 'Ubaydullah R
  Sai'd bin Zayd R
  Zubayr bin Al 'Awwam R
  Abu Bakr R
  Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R
  'Abdur Rahman bin 'Auf R
  'Umar bin Khattab R
  'Uthman ibn 'Affan R
Fadl bin 'Abbas R
'Abdullah bin Khattab R
Fatimah bint Harith R
Sa'ib bin Maz'un R
Sa'd bin 'Abd Qays R
Sa'id bin Zayd bin 'Amr R
Habbar bin Sufyan R
'Abdullah (Abu Salamah) R
Nu'aym bin 'Abdullah R
Fras bin Nadr R
Zayd bin Harithah R
Abu Hurayrah R
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