Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R was one of the
cousins of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S, from his mother’s side. Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas
R was a Sahabi (Companion of Muhammad
Messenger of Allah S began to take the message of Islam
to his friends and many of them accepted Islam.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R is one of the
as-Sabiqun al-Awwalun (Early
Muslims). He was also one of the 'Asharah Mubashsharah
(Ten, who were giving the news of Heavens in their lifetime).
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R converted to
Islam because of the Da’wah (Invitation)
work by done by Abu Bakr R, a close friend of the
Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S and the
first adult male to become a Muslim.
person to convert to Islam was Khadijah
bint Khuwaylid R, the first wife of the Messenger of
Allah, Muhammad S.
of the early Muslims were also from the Quraysh
tribe, the tribe of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
early Muslims were tortured by the Quraysh
of Makkah. The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S allowed these Muslims to migrate out of Makkah
to save their lives. Many Muslims migrated to Habash
for the first time, in the year 9BH (Before
Muslims, who stayed back in Makkah,
continued to face the torture of Quraysh. They
boycotted the clans of Banu Hashim and
Bani Muttalib, from Makkah.
The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S belonged
to the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh
tribe. Bani Muttalib was named after
Al Muttalib bin ‘Abd Manaf, the younger
brother of Hashim bin ‘Abd Manaf.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R did not belong
to either of the two Quraysh clans. He voluntarily
chose to stay with the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S, in the Shi’b (Mountain Pass) Abu
Talib, outside Makkah and face the
hardships under the open skies. During the boycott, no one
was allowed to trade with of Banu Hashim
and Bani Muttalib, which meant days of
starvation because of lack of food.
boycott continued for three years. Banu Hashim
and Banu Muttalib Finally, the Muslims
and the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S migrated to Yathrib (Madinah).
Islam prospered in Madinah.
Almost entire population of Madinah and
its neighboring areas accepted Islam.
Muslims of Madinah, helped
their Muhajir (Immigrant) brothers
and sisters. This is why Muhammad S called them
Ansar. Ansar means
Muslims established their first Government in
Madinah. Quraysh of Makkah
did not like it.
assembled an army of one thousand (1,000) well-armed and experienced
warriors. They marched towards Madinah,
to finish Islam, once for all.
were met by only three hundred thirteen (313), ill equipped
Muslims and Quraysh fought near the
wells of Badr. Battle
of Badr was the first major confrontation between
Muslims and the Quraysh. The
battle of Badr took place on the 17th
of Ramadan (Ninth month of
Islamic calendar) of the year 2H (Hijrah).
The Quraysh were badly defeated by Muslims.
the battle of Badr, the Messenger of Allah,
Muhammad S sent Muslims to reconnaissance
missions to keep an eye over the movement of Quraysh
caravans that passed from the vicinity of Madinah.
One such team was led by 'Ubaydah bin al Harith
R. They were sent to a well in the Valley
the Quraysh leader came there with two hundred
Muslims and Quraysh came face
to face, but both of them withdrew, without any fight.
leaving the place, Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R shot
an arrow towards the enemy. This was the
first arrow shot for the cause
time later, the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S sent another team of his Sahabah (Companions)
in the month of Rajab (Seventh month of
Islamic calendar) of the year 2H (Hijrah),
on a mission. This team was led by 'Abdullah bin Jahsh
R. Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R and 'Utbah bin
Ghazwan R were also in that team. The Messenger of
Allah, Muhammad S had given them a letter
and had instructed them to read the letter after travelling
for two (2) days.
The letter asked them to go to Nakhalah
and keep a watch on the movement of trading caravans of the
The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S also
told them that no one should be forced to go to Nakhalah.
'Abdullah bin Jahsh R and his team went
to Nakhalah. On the last day of Rajab
(Seventh month of Islamic calendar), they saw
a Quraysh caravan.
(Seventh month of Islamic calendar) was one
of the four months, considered sacred by the ‘Arabs,
before Islam. They did not travel or fight in
These four sacred months were:
(First month of the Islamic calendar)
(Seventh month of the Islamic calendar)
3. Dhul Qa'dah
(Eleventh month of the Islamic calendar)
Dhul Hijjah (Twelfth
month of the Islamic calendar)
Islam also considered the same four
months sacred. The
number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year)
- so ordained by Him the day He created the Heavens and the
earth; of them four are sacred.
Surah (Chapter) at-Taubah
The Qur-an 9:36
These old traditions were respected and followed
even after the advent of Islam.
Muslims, who spotted the Quraysh
caravan, were confused. They knew that they should not be
fighting in the sacred month but they did not want to waste
this opportunity either. Finally, the decided to attack the
caravan of Quraysh. They seized the property
of the caravan and captured two of the Quraysh.
During the tussle one Quraysh was killed and
another ran away. The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S had specifically advised them not to attack the Quraysh,
as he had sent this team only to look for the movements of
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R and 'Utbah bin
Ghazwan R were a part of that team, they did
not participate in the attack because they were not there
at that time. Some of their camels had strayed away from the
caravan and they had gone away from their team in search of
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R and 'Utbah
bin Ghazwan R were captured by another team
of Quraysh. Later, these two Sahabah
(Companions of Muhammad S) were released in exchange
of the two Quraysh, which were captured by 'Abdullah
bin Jahsh R.
Quraysh blamed the Messenger of Allah
Muhammad S, for breaking an age-old tradition
of fighting in a sacred month. The Messenger of Allah,
Muhammad S was hurt by the actions of some of
his Sahabah (Companions).
Sahabah (Companions of Muhammad
S) were also saddened by the action of 'Abdullah
bin Jahsh R and his party. Some time later, they were
pardoned by Allah (God) and His Rasul
the beginning of the battle of Badr, the Messenger
of Allah Muhammad S sent a team of his
Sahabah (Companions) towards the wells
of Badr on a reconnaissance mission. 'Ali
bin Abu Talib R, Zubayr bin al Awwam
R and Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R were sent there
to watch the movements of Quraysh.
the wells of Badr, they found two young shepherd
boys grazing their cattle. Those boys were grazing their cattle.
These boys told the Muslim scouts that the Quraysh
army is camping on the other side of the hill.
battle of Badr was won by the Muslims.
This battle was fought in the year 2H (Hijrah).
Many leaders of the Quraysh were killed in this
year later, Quraysh returned to avenge their
defeat. They fought the Muslims again near the mountain
of ‘Uhud. During the battle of 'Uhud
with Quraysh, the wells of Badr
, the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S
was injured. Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R was among
the few Sahabah (Companions of
Muhammad S), who shielded him with their own bodies.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R was shooting arrows at
Quraysh and the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S was passing arrows to him.
Muslims suffered heavy losses in the battle
of 'Uhud. Some of the tribes living
around Madinah were pleased to see the
losses of Muslims. They became bold and began attacking
Muslims found out that Banu (Family
of) Asad were planning to attack Madinah.
In the month of Muharram (First month
of Islamic calendar) of the year 4H (Hijrah),
the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S appointed
‘Abdullah (Abu Salamah) R as the leader of a team of
Muslims and sent them to reason with Banu (Family
of) Asad. Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R and
Abu 'Ubaydah bin Jarrah R were also in that team. Banu
(Family of) Asad decided to fight the Muslims.
As a result, the Muslims defeated them.
the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S, almost the entire Arabian Peninsula
had embraced Islam.
the demise of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S, Abu Bakr R became the Khalifah
(Caliph) of Muslims in the year 11H (Hijrah).
was conquered by the Muslims during his Khilafah
(Term of a Caliph).
Abu Bakr R, 'Umar bin Khattab
R became the second Khalifah (Caliph)
of Muslims. During his period, the Islamic
State expanded vastly.
Ramadan (Ninth month of Islamic
calendar) of the year 13H (Hijrah), the Persian
army defeated Muslims, in the battle of Maruhah.
One year later, Muslim army took their revenge at the
battle of Buwayb. This battle took place in
Ramadan (Ninth month of Islamic
calendar) of the year 14H (Hijrah). Thousands
of Persians were killed in this battle. Their commander,
Mahran was also killed. Yazd Gard
became the new emperor of the Persian Empire in place of Puran Dakht.
of changes in Persia,
'Iraq revolted against Muslims. 'Umar
bin Khattab R gathered a large army. Sa'd
bin Abu Waqqas R was chosen to lead the Muslim
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R fought the first
battle with Persians at Qadasiyah.
Rustam was the commander of Persian army. When
Rustam saw the large Muslim army, he got scared
and did not want to fight them. He tried to trick Muslims
by sending them offers of peace.
Muharram (First month of the
Islamic calendar) of the year 14H (Hijrah),
the two armies fought.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R had fallen sick
at that time and was even unable to walk. He deputed Khalid
bin 'Urtafah to command the forces in the battleground. Sa'd
bin Abu Waqqas R stayed back in his tent. From the
tent, he observed the battle and instructed Khalid
bin 'Urtafah. Whenever needed, he wrote down his instructions
on a sheet of paper. Then he rolled the paper in the shape
of a ball and arranged to reach it to his deputy. This battle
continued for three days. Muslims fought bravely and
eventually Hilal, a Muslim soldier killed
Rustam. The Persian army ran away to a place called
Babal and tried to regroup to prepare
for the war once gain. This time, Firozan took
the command of the Persian army.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R marched to
Babal in 15H (Hijrah). On
the way he conquered the city of Burs.
The chief of Burs named Bistam
surrendered to the Muslims without offering any resistance.
Persian army retreated from Babal also and sought
refuge at Kuthi.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R camped at
Babal and sent a small force to Kuthi
to fight the Persians. The battle of Kuthi
started with a duel. The chief of Kuthi,
Shahar Yar, a very strong man, challenged
the Muslims for a duel. Muslims sent Nabil,
a slave of the Banu (Family of) Tamim
to fight him. Although Nabil was not as strong
as Shahar Yar, he managed to kill Shahar
Yar in their duel.
Muslim army won Kuthi and Sa'd
bin Abu Waqqas R marched forward to Bahtah
Sher, a place famous for a tiger. Bahtah
Sher was close to the Persian capital city of
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R surrounded the
city of Bahtah Sher
and laid a siege that continued for two months. One day Sa'd
bin Abu Waqqas R and his army decided to attack the
city. The Muslims conquered the city of
on the same day.
Now the Muslims marched towards the Persian capital,
mighty river Dajalah was a barrier between the
Muslim army and the city of Mada-“in.
The Persians had destroyed all the boats, which were used
to cross the river. They also destroyed all the bridges over
the Dajalah river. At that time, river Dajalah
was flooded. Persians were sure that Muslims would
not dare to cross the river and were confident of their safety.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R analyzed the
situation and put his horse into the river. He ordered his
army to follow him. The entire Muslim army followed
him. The Muslim army consisting of thirty thousand
soldiers crossed the river Dajalah riding their
seemed that they were crossing a field instead of a flooded
river. It was a unique display of courage and bravery. Persians
could not believe to see columns after columns of the Muslim
army cross the turbulent river. They got very scared because
such feat was not expected such an action from humans. Yazd
Gard, the emperor of the Persian Empire also fled. He had earlier sent his family to a safe place.
Muslim army entered Mada-“in under the
command of Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R and no one
resisted them. This was the beginning of the end of the
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R removed the famous royal
throne from the royal court and installed a Mimbar
(Pulpit) in its place. The palatial royal court was
turned into a humble place for prayers.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R led the first
ever Jumu'ah Salah
(Friday Prayers) in 'Iraq.
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R transferred
the treasures of Mada-“in to the treasury
at Madinah. He remained camped in Mada-“in
and sent Hashim bin 'Utbah with twelve thousand
Muslims to Jalula'.
was conquered by Muslims in 16H (Hijrah)
after eighty attempts. Thousands of Persian soldiers got trapped
in trenches, they had dug for their defense. Muslims
got war trophies worth thirty million Dirhams in that
17H (Hijrah), Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas
R sent 'Ayyaz bin Ghanam with
an army of five thousand men to Jazirah.
'Ayyaz bin Ghanam soon conquered
Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas R became the conqueror
and was subsequently appointed its ‘Amil (Governor).
He proved to be an able administrator.
other victorious armies, Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas
R and his fellow Muslims behaved very well with the
local population. Most of the tribes converted to Islam,
after seeing its true face in the behavior of Muslims.
Dhul-Hijjah (Twelfth month
of Islamic calendar) of 23H (Hijrah),
Firoze (Abu Lulu), a slave of Persian origins, belonging
to Mughirah bin Sha'bah, stabbed 'Umar
bin Khattab R, the second Khalifah
(Caliph) of Muslims. 'Umar bin Khattab
R was seriously injured. On his death bed he named a panel
of six persons. From which the next Khalifah
(Caliph) of Muslims was to be elected. Sa'd
bin Abu Waqqas R was one of those six panelists.
Others in that panel were 'Ali bin Abu Talib
R, 'Uthman bin 'Affan R, Zubayr
bin al Awwam R,
Talhah bin ‘Ubaydullah R,
and ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Awf R.
bin Khattab R had appointed
his son, ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar R
as an arbitrator and not as a candidate. He instructed
his son to use his arbitration in favor of the candidate whom
‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Awf R
bin 'Affan R was elected unanimously as the third Khalifah
(Caliph) of Muslims.