bin Khattab R became the second Khalifah
(Caliph) of Islam after Abu Bakr R. He
belonged to Banu (Family of) ‘Adi
of the Quraysh tribe. He accepted Islam
in the year 7BH (Before Hijrah) when he was about twenty-six
years of age. His Kunniyah (Agnomen)
was Abu Hafs. He died on 1st
of Muharram in 24H (Hijrah).
He was a tall,
handsome and a fair-complexioned man. He had the ability to
work with both, right as well as left hand with ease. He was
an expert in horse-riding. According to Ibn Sa’d, he was a
good wrestler, and often participated in the game of wrestling
at the festival of ‘Ukaz, before Islam.
He was known
for his negotiating skills and for this reason he became a
distinguished emissary of Quraysh. Whenever,
Quraysh felt the need of sending a delegation
somewhere, ‘Umar bin Khattab R was given
the ambassadorial assignment of negotiation and diplomacy.
He traveled to Sham (Iraq and
Syria) quite often before Islam, and
met their rulers.
He had six wives
and three bond-maids, who bore nine sons and four daughters
with him. Among his sons, ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar R was
the most pious and a prominent scholar of Islam.
bin Khattab R was a strong opponent of Islam,
before he converted to Islam. The Quraysh
leadership was angry with the Messenger of Allah,
Muhammad S and his preaching of Islam.
Islamic monotheism also threatened their spiritual leadership
as the custodians of the Ka’bah, which housed
360 idols of gods of various Arab tribes, and had become the
central place of worship in the entire Arab lands. Besides
the spiritual leadership, custodianship of the Ka’bah
also reaped financial rewards from the pilgrims that flocked
to Makkah for pilgrimage to the Ka’bah.
bin Khattab R was greatly disturbed and distressed
at the situation created by the Messenger of Allah,
Muhammad S by which members of their own Quraysh
tribe were accepting the new faith Islam. The
Quraysh ridiculed the Messenger of Allah,
Muhammad S in the beginning; but when his Message
began taking roots, they abused him, threatened him and even
assaulted him physically. But the Messenger of Allah,
Muhammad S continues on his Mission.
bin Khattab was wanted to kill ridiculed the
Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S
to finish the threat from Islam, once for all.
He took out his
sword and rushed towards Dar Arqam (House
of Arqam R) where the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S and his Sahabah (Companions) used to
meet in the early days of Islam.
On the way to
Dar Arqam (House of Arqam R), ‘Umar
bin Khattab R met Nu’aym bin ‘Abdullah
bin ‘Abdullah R had never seen him in such an anger. ‘Umar
bin Khattab told him that he is going to kill
the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
bin ‘Abdullah R told 'Umar bin Khattab
that before he does any thing to the Messenger of Allah,
Muhammad S he should put his own house in order.
Nu'aym bin ‘Abdullah R told 'Umar bin Khattab
that his own sister Fatimah bint Khattab
R and her husband Sa’id bin Zayd R had also
bin Khattab was outraged at this news. In a
fit of anger, he rushed to the house of Sa’id
bin Zayd R, to take care of his sister and brother in-law
bin Khattab R reached there, both Sa’id
bin Zayd R and his wife Fatimah bint Khattab
R were listening to the recitation of Qur-an
by Khabbab bin Arrat R, who was
reciting parts of Surah (Chapter) Hadid
(Iron) The Qur-an 57.
bin Khattab entered their house and beat up
Sa’id bin Zayd R badly.
bin Khattab also hit his sister Fatimah
bint Khattab R, when she tried to save her
bin Khattab tried to force Sa’id
bin Zayd R and Fatimah bint Khattab
R to quit their new religion Islam, and return
to the age-old religion of their ancestors. His merciless
beatings did not yield any results, both of them refused.
When ‘Umar bin Khattab got tired of beating
them, better sense prevailed upon him when he saw his sister
and brother-in-law bleeding. His curiosity also took over.
He asked them to recite those strange verses back to him,
which he had heard while entering their house.
bin Zayd R and Fatimah bint Khattab
R recited those beautiful verses from the Holy Qur-an
again. It resulted in a total change of heart of ‘Umar
bin Khattab. He was awed by the truth in the
words of Allah (God).
bin Khattab went straight to Dar
Arqam (House of Arqam R) with his unsheathed sword
and converted to Islam immediately, in front
of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S and his Sahabah (Companions), who had
doubts upon his intentions when he arrived their with an unsheathed
sword in his hands. Sa’id bin Zayd R and his
wife Fatimah R were instrumental in the conversion
of ‘Umar bin Khattab R who became one
of the great followers of Islam.
Harassed by the
torture of Quraysh, the Messenger of Allah,
Muhammad S used to pray to Allah
(God) for the conversion of one of the two staunch enemies
of Islam, ‘Umar bin Khattab
and Abu Jahl bin Hisham. Allah
(God) granted his wish by this sudden and unexpected conversion
of ‘Umar bin Khattab R. Abu Jahl
bin Hisham was killed in the battle of Badr
in the year 2H (Hijrah).
Ibn Sa’d, ‘Umar bin Khattab R accepted
Islam after 45 men and 11 women had already
come into the folds of Islam. In the beginning,
other people used to hide their faith fearing persecution,
but after ‘Umar bin Khattab R converted
to Islam, he openly declared his faith and single-handedly
Islam, ‘Umar bin Khattab
R whole-heartedly defended the Messenger of Allah,
Muhammad S and his mission. Because of his influence
over his tribe, Banu (Family of) ‘Adi,
did not oppose Islam. When the Quraysh
of Makkah assembled in Dar Al-
Nadwah to plot against the Messenger of Allah,
Muhammad S, no one from the tribe of Banu
(Family of) ‘Adi participated. Similarly,
no one from his tribe participated in the battle of Badr.
bin Khattab R divorced his wife when she refused
to accept Islam.
bin Khattab R was made brother to Abu Bakr
R before Hijrah. Then after Hijrah,
he was made brother to ‘Itban bin Malik Ansari
R when the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S, made a Muhajir (Migrant Muslim from Makkah),
brother of an Ansar (Helper – Muslim from Madinah).
‘Umar bin Khattab R stayed with ‘Itban
bin Malik Ansari R in Mudafat
for a while. They used to visit Madinah
on alternate days to meet the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S. Soon, ‘Umar bin Khattab R constructed
his house in Madinah, on a piece of land
given to by the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
when people in large number flooded to Madinah
for allegiance, the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S, deputed ‘Umar bin Khattab R for obtaining
allegiance from women.
bin Khattab R participated in all the battles
right from Badr to Tabuk
with the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S. In the year 7H (Hijrah) in the month of Sha’ban,
he was deputed to Turbah as a commander to deal
with some mischievous branches of Banu (Family of)
Hawazin. They were gypsies who ran away.
As a result, no confrontation took place.
bin Khattab R was also interested in studies.
Once he heard some interesting things from a Jew. He jotted
them down and showed it to the Messenger of Allah,
Muhammad S. The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S, however, forbade him to take any note from the Jews. However,
the reason behind this was not known. Because on other occasion,
the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, permitted
‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin al ‘As R to study the
Once, the Messenger
of Allah, Muhammad S, assigned ‘Umar
bin Khattab R with the task of collecting Zakah.
When ‘Umar bin Khattab R approached the
Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S’s uncle,
‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul Muttalib R for Zakah,
the Messenger S forbade him, as he had already paid it in
Once the Messenger
of Allah, Muhammad S, said : "I
have two heavenly vicegerents and two earthly vicegerents
: Jibril and Mika’il, and Abu
Bakr and ‘Umar."
Once the Messenger
of Allah, Muhammad S, was in search of
some good people for the propagation of Islam.
Someone suggested the names of Abu Bakr R and ‘Umar
bin Khattab R. The Messenger said, " How
can I forget them ? They are my ears and eyes in the matter
At another place,
the Messenger said, "If Abu Bakr R and ‘Umar
bin Khattab R agreed on a point, I will not
dispute over it."
bin Khattab R donated half of his property for
the preparation of the battle of Tabuk.
He had purchased a fertile land at Khayber,
and as per the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S’s advice, endowed it.
bin Khattab R took pride that three or four
times, portions of the Qur-an was revealed as
per his desirupon his various requests and queries to the
Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S. For example,
regarding the veiling of women.
After the death
of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S,
Abu Bakr R proposed names of ‘Umar bin Khattab
R and Abu ‘Ubaydah bin Jarrah R for the Khilafah
(Caliphate) but both refused.
bin Khattab R advised Abu Bakr R to abstain
from dealing with people who refused to pay Zakah,
but Abu Bakr R preferred principle over wisdom, and
fought with people who refused to pay the Zakah.
When a great
number of Huffaz (Memorizers of the Qur-an)
were martyred in battle with Musailimah Kadh-dhab
(the liar), the false Messenger; ‘Umar bin Khattab
R advised Abu Bakr R to compile the Holy Qur-an.
At first, Abu Bakr R hesitated, since the Messenger
of Allah, Muhammad S, but later he agreed
after he saw the logic of ‘Umar bin Khattab
R behind it.
bin Khattab R, during his reign, made every
effort to popularize the study of the Holy Qur-an
among the believers and instituted scholarships for it. He
wanted to distribute the authentic version of the Holy Qur-an
in all provinces but he was martyred before he could have
undertaken the task.
bin Khattab R was made the Qadi
(Judge) of Madinah in the time of Abu
Bakr R. But the people of Madinah
had such impeccable character that months used to pass and
not a single dispute used to reach him for solution.
bin Khattab R was a confident and special advisor
to Abu Bakr R. If they disagreed with each other, they
used to respect each other so very much that it could set
an example for others. This is the reason why Abu Bakr
R appointed ‘Umar bin Khattab R as his
successor from his death-bed.
When Abu Bakr
R was on his death-bed, he called ‘Uthman
bin ‘Affan R, and dictated a will. He said, "When
I die, my successor..."After saying this much he fell
unconscious, ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan
R, however, completed the sentence, "will be ‘Umar
bin Khattab R." When after sometime, Abu
Bakr R regained consciousness, he enquired ‘Uthman
bin ‘Affan R what he had written. ‘Uthman
bin ‘Affan R read out the sentence. When he heard the
sentence, Abu Bakr R praised ‘Uthman
bin ‘Affan R.
After the will
was completed, Abu Bakr R ordered that it should be
publicly read out, and allegiance for ‘Umar bin Khattab
R should be sought. Everybody happily paid allegiance to ‘Umar
bin Khattab R.
‘Ali bin Abu Talib R and some other Sahabah
(Companions of Muhammad S) returned from their journey
learnt that ‘Umar bin Khattab R’s name
had been proposed as the next Khalifah
(Caliph), he expressed his reservations about and said, "He
is a strict person. How would you face God after appointing
R excitingly got up and said, " I will tell God that
I have appointed the best man in His creation as my successor."
After the death
of Abu Bakr R, a fresh allegiance to him was obtained
unanimously. The formula of the Bay’ah (Allegiance)
was, "The allegiance is for God, and the obedience is
for the truth."
of Abu Bakr R
name of God, the Most Merciful and the Most Compassionate.
This is the testament
of Abu Bakr bin Quhafah, which he made at the
time of his departure from this world, and at the time of
stepping into the next world, at a time, when even an unbeliever
begins to believe, and even a profligate begins to trust.
I have appointed ‘Umar bin Khattab R
as my successor upon you. Listen to him and obey him. In this,
I have considered about God, His Messenger, His religion,
myself and about your well being. If he does justice, it will
be as per my knowledge and expectations from him. But if he
changes himself, then everyone will have to bear the fruit
of one’s action. Although I have desired goodness, but I do
not know the future. Wrongdoers will soon learn where they
have to return. Be peace upon you and God’s mercy."
bin Khattab R’s First Public Address after
becoming Khalifah (Caliph)
" I am being
put to trial through you and you are being put to trial through
me. I have been made successor of my last two predecessors.
Whatever thing will come before me, I will deal with it individually.
And whatever things will occur at other places, I will appoint
strong and trustworthy people to deal with them. Whoever does
good, I will favor him, and whoever does any wrong, I will
punish him. May God forgive me and you all."
bin Khattab R did not make any change in the
basic structure of the government. However, as per exigencies
of time, the process of completion continued on the basis
bin Khattab R became Khalifah
(Caliph), internal revolt had almost subsided. However, Muslims
were confronted with two great empires: Iran as well
as Rome. ‘Umar bin Khattab R changed
the commanders of both the fronts, but he had no other alternative
except to continue the fight. Soon world saw that Iraq,
Iran, Afghanistan, and Western India (now Pakistan)
on one side, and Syria, Anatolia, Armenia,
Egypt, and Libya on the other side, were included
into the Islamic world.
bin Khattab R never allowed or encouraged racial
and tribal discrimination in his time. His decisions were
based on truth and justice. When he demoted Khalid
bin Walid R and Muthanna Shaibani
from the designations of commander to the ordinary soldiers,
he said: "Only God grants victory, neither Khalid
bin Khattab R held Khalid bin
Walid R in high esteem. He too, respected and admired
‘Umar bin Khattab R. ‘Umar bin
Khattab R wanted to re-appoint him as commander,
before his death.
bin Khattab R had certain reservations about
Khalid bin Walid R. Despite the fact
that, Khalid bin Walid R was a good commander,
he was not a good Faqih (Jurist). ‘Umar
bin Khattab R expected that a commander of the
Muslim army should also have deep insight into religious
affairs. Once Khalid bin Walid R came
wearing silken shirt, ‘Umar bin Khattab
R got angry with him, because the Messenger of Allah,
Muhammad S, forbade men to wear silken garments.
When the territory
of the Islamic government began to expand, and it was realized
that the Muslim soldiers need not return to their homeland,
a new problem arose with regard to Ghanimah
(War Trophies). As per Qur-anic instruction,
one-fifth part of the Ghanimah
(War Trophies) was to be given to the Islamic government
and the rest of it was to be distributed among the soldiers.
As long as it
concerned with material wealth, the distribution was not a
problem. But when far-flung lands included in booty, it created
a problem. If land were also distributed among the soldiers
as per Qur-anic instruction, soldiers would become
rich, and the wealth will be concentrated in the hands of
a few people. This was against the very spirit of Islam.
As a result, a long debate ensued. Some Sahabah
(Companions of Muhammad S) disagreed. However after
a month’s deliberations, when ‘Umar bin Khattab
R put forth some Qur-anic verses (59:7-10) in support
of his argument, it was decided that the victorious territories
be endowed for the coming generations.
Arabs were mostly
poor people. So when Abu Hurayrah R, the governor
of Bahrain, once, brought five hundred thousand
Dirhams to Madinha, it surprised
‘Umar bin Khattab R. He decided that
it should be distributed by weight instead of counting. But
within two three years, annual income from Iraq swelled
to 120 million Dirhams, and from Egypt, 50 million Dinars.
bin Khattab R suggested that women should have
the minimum dower. He used to keep a constant watch over his
‘Amils (Governors). He used to assess their
full property at the time of their appointment. If he found
any kind of discrepancy in their governance, he not only used
to expel them but also confiscated half of their property.
While appointing them, he used to have this clause in their
job contract that they should not ride on a high-breed Turkish
horse, should not eat bread made of fine flour, should not
wear thin and fine clothes, should not close their doors and
employ watchmen, but be always ready to meet anyone anytime.
bin Khattab R learnt that Sa’d bin Abu
Waqqas R had constructed a grand house and had made
a special gate for entry, he did not say anything to him but
sent someone from Madinah with an order
to set the gate on fire.
When the victorious
soldiers of Yarmuk entered Madinah
wearing boastful dresses, ‘Umar bin Khattab
R asked the people of Madinah to pelt
stones on them, and when they came after changing their dresses,
they were welcomed.
bin Khattab R expelled Ayaz Ibn
Ghanam from the governorship for wearing expensive
dress. Similar kind of punishment was awarded to Nu’man
Fadalah for reciting a poem eulogizing wine.
bin Umayyah R, who accepted Islam after the
conquest of Makkah, was made ‘Amil
(Governor) of Yemen. But when he reserved a
special meadow for his personal cattle, and forbade others
people from grazing their cattle in it, ‘Umar bin Khattab
R expelled him from the governorship on this discrimination
and asked him to travel from Yemen to Madinah
on foot. While he was on his way to Madinah
on foot that he got the news of ‘Umar bin Khattab
R’s death, then he completed the rest of the journey on a
bin Khattab R’s character was both rigid as
well as flexible. When he visited Syria, and noticed
the grandeur of Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan R,
he objected over it. But when Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan
R explained to him its necessity that it was to empress the
Byzantine who considered them of lower status,
‘Umar bin Khattab R was convinced.
governors, he told the people to listen and obey them so long
as they do justice.
bin Khattab R’s
Relations with non-Muslims
with non-Muslims were based on justice and equity. It is evident
from a letter written by a Christian to his friend. He writes:
"These Arabs whom God has bestowed sovereignty these
days are our Masters as well. But they do not wage war with
Christianity. On the contrary, they defend our faith, they
respect our priests and reverends and they make donations
to our churches and monasteries."
bin Khattab R noticed a Jew begging in the streets
of Madinha, he recited the verse: "Verily
the charity is for beggars (Fuqara) and the poor (Masakin)..."
He said ‘Fuqara’ refers to Muslims and ‘Masakin’
refers to the non-Muslim poor, and they are the people of
the book. And so he fixed a regular monthly income for him.
Similarly he allocated regular doles for the poor Syrian Christians
while he was on a tour to Syria.
some people usurped a piece of land that belonged to a Jew,
and constructed a mosque on it. When ‘Umar bin Khattab
R learnt about it he ordered it to be razed and returned it
to its owner. According to a report published in 1933 by a
Lebanese Christian professor, Shukri Qardhahi, this Jewish
House is still existent.
Once, while ‘Umar
bin Khattab R was delivering Friday sermon at
Al-Masjid Al-Haram (The Sacred
Mosque), a Christian trader approached him, and complained
about a tax collector. ‘Umar bin Khattab
R suspended his sermon in the mid and listened to his complaint,
and said, "This cannot happen," and resumed the
sermon. Being disappointed the trader returned to the border
thinking that he would have to pay extra tax for his goods.
But he was surprised to find that a written order had already
reached to the tax collector before he returned there.
bin Khattab R instituted a system for military
pensions, he also included various Non-Muslim Iranians in
There are one
or two instances that show that ‘Umar bin Khattab
R did not deem it fit to reward new converts to Islam.
For example, when a Roman accepted Islam, some
people recommended rewarding him. But ‘Umar bin Khattab
R said, "Islam should be accepted on the
basis of truth."
bin Khattab R instituted military camps in places,
which came under Islamic domination. He appointed governors,
which used to be sent from Madinah. He
had the powers to appoint officers on his own for various
developmental activities. However, his rights were limited.
There was no governmental educational institution. It was
the individual duty of the learned people to educate people.
However, government had made special arrangement for the study
of the Qur-an.
bin Khattab R instituted Hijrah
calendar in the year 16H (Hijrah). Although Hijrah
calendar was also prevalent during the time of the Messenger
of Allah, Muhammad S, but there was no
consistency in it. Some people counted it from the first Muharram
after Bay’t ‘Aqbah, some people counted it from
the Muharram, after three months of which
the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, migrated
to Madinah, and some people counted it
from the Muharram that came after the
migration of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
people did not consider it necessary to write the year on
the documents. And official documents used to be torn after
completion of the work. But this was not a healthy practice.
As a result, some people suggested using Roman calendar, while
other suggested using Iranian calendar. But the majority wanted
to have an Islamic calendar. Some people suggested beginning
Islamic calendar with the birth of the Messenger, while other
suggested Hijrah as the starting point, whereas
some suggested the death of the Messenger of Allah,
Muhammad S, as the starting point of the Islamic
calendar. However, Hijrah was unanimously accepted
as the starting point of the Islamic calendar. And Muharram
was regarded as the first month of the Islamic calendar.
was based on lunar cycle. It had some apparent financial benefits.
As lunar cycle is shorter than the solar cycle, 33 years of
solar calendar are equivalent to 34 years of lunar calendar.
As a result, one year’s extra tax was collected. Moreover,
there were different timings for the collection of agricultural
tax. So the public treasury remained full throughout the year.
The Islamic government
in the period of ‘Umar bin Khattab R
took up minting of coins in its charge. But, even public was
allowed to mint the coin. These coins used to be minted in
Iran and Syria. The silver coins were called
Dirham and coins made of gold were known as Dinar.
The coins belonging to the period of ‘Umar bin Khattab
R are preserved in various museums of the world. These coins
were engraved with the words of Allah, Al Hamdu
Lillah, Muhammadur Rasulullah, La Ilaha
illallah and ‘Umar bin Khattab
R. According to some reports, leather and paper coins were
also started in the period of ‘Umar bin Khattab
R, as silver and gold became scarce.
bin Khattab R changed the ancient tyrannical
system of tax after conquering Egypt. In ancient Egypt,
agriculture was based on the flow of river Nile. There was
a cruel tradition that a beautiful young girl used to be submerged
alive to propitiate the river Nile. When ‘Umar bin
Khattab R stopped this cruel practice, as soon
as he learnt about it. Incidentally, there was little rain
that year. The mischievous farmers made it an issue. When
‘Umar bin Khattab R found out about it,
he drafted a letter addressing to the river Nile to the effect:
"O River Nile, if you flow out of your own choice, then
don’t flow. We do not need you. But if you flow by the grace
of God, then I pray to God, may it fill you with water."
bin Khattab R commanded the governor to submerge
this letter in the river Nile. From the following day the
water level of river Nile began to increase.
mostly based on Tafsir (Exegesis),
Hadith, (Tradition), Fiqh
(Jurisprudence) and Sirah (Biography
of the Messenger). ‘Umar bin Khattab
R instituted scholarship for the study of the Qur-an,
though there were no separate schools education was imparted
in Masajid (Mosques). When Kufah
was inhabited, besides military camp, a Masjid
(Mosque) was also constructed right in front of the
‘Amil (Governor)’s house. ‘Umar bin Khattab
R deputed ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud R to impart
the knowledge of the Qur-an in Kufah.
bin Khattab R established cantonments in every
town, and instituted regular emoluments for the soldiers.
He allocated special pensions for the widows of the Messenger
of Allah, Muhammad S. He allocated excess
amount for ‘A"ishah bint Abu Bakr R, the
beloved wife of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S. But she refused to take it. For, it discriminated other
wives of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S. When ‘Umar bin Khattab R made discrimination
between Juwayriyah R and Safiyyah R and
other wives of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad
S, on the basis of their status as bondmaids, the other wives
of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S,
objected, and said, "Messenger never discriminated among
his wives." Consequently, ‘Umar bin Khattab
R gave equal share to each wife.
bin Khattab R gave maximum stipend to the Messenger
of Allah, Muhammad S’s uncle, ‘Abbas
bin ‘Abdul Muttalib R, and to the participants of Badr.
He allocated stipend even for young children, which continued
to increase with the increase in their ages. ‘Umar
bin Khattab R kept special consideration for
the Messenger’s relation. Thus he gave Usamah
bin Zayd R, a freed slave and adopted son of the Messenger
of Allah, Muhammad S more than his own
son, ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar R.
bin Khattab R reduced the salaries of the governors
to a minimum level. He drastically cut down on his own expenses.
While travelling to Syria, he took only one servant
with him, and only one camel, on which both master as well
as servant rode by rotation.
Musa Ash’ari R sent a carpet to ‘Umar
bin Khattab R’s wife as a gift. When ‘Umar
bin Khattab R summoned Abu Musa
Ash’ari R and returned it to him. When ‘Umar bin Khattab
R’s own wife, Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali R received
a precious necklace from the Queen of Hiraql, in return
to her own gift, which she had sent through an official emissary;
‘Umar bin Khattab R placed it before
the congregation in the mosque, and wanted to ascertain the
opinion of the Sahabah (Companions of
Muhammad S). They unanimously advised ‘Umar
bin Khattab R that there was no harm in accepting
the gift. Still, ‘Umar bin Khattab R
did not agree and he deposited the gift in the state treasury,
and paid the value of his wife’s gift from the treasury.
bin Khattab R often used to come out in the
night for inspection, and fulfilled people’s necessities.
Once upon a time, he noticed the precarious condition of a
poor woman who was crying with labor pains. ‘Umar bin
Khattab R rushed to help her and even took his
wife for the assistance of the woman.
Once he noticed
a wine-party in somebody’s house. He jotted down the address
of the person and summoned him in the morning for explanation.
When the owner of the house denied it, he said he had himself
seen it the night before. The person reminded ‘Umar
bin Khattab R of the Qur-anic instruction,
which forbade people to keep surveillance upon others’ houses.
Upon hearing this, ‘Umar bin Khattab
R silenced and did not punish him.
Once, a woman
was instructing her daughter to mix water in the milk. The
daughter refused to mix water in the milk as she said that
‘Umar bin Khattab R had forbidden doing
so. The mother said, ‘Umar bin Khattab
R is not here to see. Nevertheless, daughter did not obey
the mother. The next morning ‘Umar bin Khattab
R called his sons and said that there is a pious girl. If
I were not old, I would have married her. Is there anyone
who could marry her? ‘Asim agreed to marry her.
And with this marriage Umm ‘Asim, mother of
the great Caliph, ‘Umar bin Abdul ‘Aziz was
bin Khattab R led a very simple life. Once he
slept under the shade of a tree. In the meantime, Roman envoy
visited the capital. When he did not find the Khalifah
(Caliph) at his residence, he came out in search of him. He
was astonished to see him sleeping under a tree. He said,
"My master is unjust. Therefore he does not go out anywhere
without a guard. You are a just person. Therefore you can
sleep so fearlessly."
bin Khattab R was the first person who introduced
Ijma" (Consensus) and Qiyas
(Reason) in Shari’ah (Islamic
Law) after the Qur-an and the Sunnah
(Tradition of Muhammad S).
bin Khattab R forbade people to indulge in gossiping
while sitting in the Masjid Nabi (Messenger’s
Mosque). Therefore he constructed a separate room beside
the Masjid (Mosque)where people could
sit and carry on their personal conversations.
A Persian slave,
Abu Lu" Lu" martyred ‘Umar bin Khattab
R, while he was leading morning prayers. According to the
modern historians like Muhammad Hussain Haykal
and ‘Abbas Mahmud Al-‘Aqqad, ‘Umar
bin Khattab R’s martyrdom was the conspiracy
of Iranian monarchy.
bin Khattab R appointed a Shura
(Consultative Committee) for the selection of his successor
from his deathbed. It consisted of six persons, namely, ‘Uthman
bin ‘Affan R, ‘Ali bin Abu Talib R, Talhah
bin ‘Ubaydullah R, Zubayr bin Al Awwam R, Sa’d
bin Abu Waqqas R and Abdur Rahman
bin ‘Awf R.
‘Umar bin Khattab R appointed his son
‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar R as an arbitrator and not
as a candidate. He instructed his son to use his arbitration
in favor of the candidate whom ‘Abdur Rahman
bin ‘Awf R had supported.
Hafsah R was also married to the Messenger
of Allah, Muhammad S after she was widowed.
bin ‘Affan R was unanimously selected the third Khalifah
(Caliph) of Muslims.
bin Khattab R was buried by the side of the
Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S near his
predecessor, Abu Bakr R.