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>>Glossary of Islamic Terms
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© Suhel Farooq Khan
Fajr Salah (Morning Prayers)

There are five daily Fard (Compulsory) Salah (Prayers), which every Muslim adult must offer. Fajr Salah (Morning Prayers) is the first of these five compulsory Salah (Prayers). It is offered before the sunrise. Fajr Salah (Morning Prayers) consists of two Fard (Compulsory) Rak’ah (Units). These two Fard (Compulsory) Rak’ah (Units) are preceded by two Rak’ah (Units) of Muwakkadah Sunnah (Emphasized Tradition of Muhammad S).

 
Surah (Chapter) al-Falaq (The Daybreak)
Surah (Chapter) al-Falaq (The Daybreak) is the 113th chapter of the Holy Qur-an. It is an early Makki Surah (Chapter) meaning that this Surah (Chapter) was revealed before the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S had migrated to Madinah. Surah (Chapter) al-Falaq (The Daybreak) consists of only five Ayat (Verses). This Surah (Chapter) asks to remember Allah (God) to safeguard one against any evil plots of others.
Fard (Compulsory act)
Literal meanings of Fard are compulsory or obligatory.  This term is normally used for religious practices, which adult Muslims must perform as a duty to Allah (God). Believing in and declaring Shahadah (Faith), offering Salah (Prayers) five times everyday, observing Sawm (Fasting) during the month of Ramadan, paying Zakah (Poor Due Charity) on one’s savings every year and going for the Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah) pilgrimage once in a lifetime if one can afford it, are among the acts of worship made Fard (Compulsory) by Allah (God).
Fard Salah (Compulsory Prayers)

Literal meanings of Fard are compulsory or obligatory. This term is normally used for religious practices, which adult Muslims must perform as a duty to Allah (God). There are five daily Salah (Prayers), which every Muslim adult must offer without fail. These five daily Fard Salah (Compulsory Prayers) are Fajr Salah (Morning Prayers), Zuhr Salah (Early Afternoon Prayers), ‘Asr Salah (Late Afternoon Prayers), Maghrib Salah (Sunset Prayers) and IshaSalah (Night Prayers).


Fasting (Sawm)

Sawm (Fasting) is also a Fard (Compulsory) ‘Ibadah (Act of Worship). Other Fard (Compulsory) ‘Ibadah (Acts of Worship) are Shahadah (Faith), Salah (Prayers), Zakah (Poor Due Charity) and Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah). Adult Muslims observe Sawm (Fasting) in the month of Ramadan, ninth month of the Islamic calendar. Fast is observed from sunrise to sunset. During this period Muslims abstain from eating, drinking, sex and even saying harsh words to others. The fast begins by eating Sahur (Pre-dawn meal) before dawn and ends just after the sunset with Iftar (Breaking of Fast). Small children and elderly are exempted from fasting. Travelers and sick people are allowed to postpone fasting. But menstruating women and those who have delivered a child must postpone their fasting till they achieve Taharah (Purification).

 
Surah (Chapter) al-Fath (The Victory)

Surah (Chapter) al-Fath (The Victory) is the 48th chapter of the Holy Qur-an. It is a Madani Surah (Chapter) meaning that this Surah (Chapter) was revealed after the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S had migrated to Madinah. Surah (Chapter) al- Fath (The Victory) consists of twenty-nine Ayat (Verses). Surah (Chapter) al-Fath (The Victory) was revealed after the treaty of Hudaybiyah was signed between the Muslims and the Quraysh of Makkah in the month of Dhul Qa’dah (11th month of Islamic calendar) in the year 6H (Hijrah) (628 AD). The Sahabah (Companions of Muhammad S) thought that the treaty was heavily tilted in favor of the Quraysh and showed the weakness of Muslims.

This Surah (Chapter) asks Muslims to faithfully follow the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, because victory will come with faith, devotion and patience. In less than two year of the revelation of this Surah (Chapter), Muslims conquered Makkah without any bloodshed.


Surah (Chapter) al-Fatihah (The Opening Chapter)

Surah means Chapter. Fatihah means Opening. Surah al-Fatihah is the opening chapter of the Qur-an. It consists of seven Ayat (Verses). Surah (Chapter) al-Fatihah (The Opening) contains the most repeated words in the world. Over a billion and a quarter Muslims recite Surah (Chapter) al-Fatihah (The Opening) in each Rak’ah (Unit) of every Salah (Prayers) at least five times a day.
Surah Fatihah is a
Du’a
(Supplication) for seeking the guidance from Allah (God) for showing the right path that pleases Him. Allah (God) has taught us this Du’a (Supplication). Rest of the Qur-an is an answer to that prayer.

 

Fatimah R

Fatimah R was the youngest daughter of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S and Khadijah bint Khuwaylid R. She was born in the year 13BH (Before Hijrah) (609 AD). She was married to ‘Ali bin Abu Talib R, in the year 2H (Hijrah) (623 AD). ‘Ali bin Abu Talib R, a cousin of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, was raised by him in his house. He was the first child to accept Islam. She died in the year 11H (Hijrah) (632 AD), a few months after the demise of her father. She was mother of Zaynab R, Hasan R, Husayn R, Umm Kulthum R and Muhsin R. Muhsin R had died in his infancy.

 
Fear of God (Taqwa)

Taqwa is an Arabic term that cannot be easily translated into English. Taqwa can be defined as righteousness and the fear of Allah (God). The fear of Allah (God) is totally different than the typical fears we are familiar with. It is the fear of committing any mistake that may displease Allah (God). Every act of a Muslim is to seek the pleasure of Allah (God). All Islamic ‘Ibadah (Acts of Worship) keep Muslims on the right path and also result in Taqwa (Righteousness-Fear of God).

 

Fitr, Sadaqatul (Charity)

The word Fitr means breaking Fast. Sadaqataul Fitr (Charity of Breaking Fast) is a kind of charity that becomes due to entire family. Well-off Muslims are required to pay Fitrah to the poor and the needy, for each of their family members including their live-in servants, before offering Id al-Fitr (Festival of Breaking Fast) Salah (Prayers). The logic behind it is probably to free the poor from the worry of earning livelihood at least on the day of Id al-Fitr (Festival of Breaking Fast). Each person must pay one Sa of wheat or equivalent amount of money as Fitrah. One Sais equal to 2.176 kilograms in weight. Each well off Muslim is required to pay 2.176 kilograms of wheat or an equivalent amount of money to the poor, before offering the Id al-Fitr (Festival of Breaking Fast) Salah (Prayers).

 

Surah (Chapter) Furqan (The Criterion)

Surah (Chapter) al-Furqan (The Criterion) is the 25th chapter of the Holy Qur-an. It is a Makki Surah (Chapter) meaning that this Surah (Chapter) was revealed before the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S had migrated to Madinah. Surah (Chapter) al-Furqan (The Criterion) consists of seventy-seven Ayat (Verses).

Allah (God) tells us about the ultimate gift He has bestowed upon mankind in the form of the Holy Qur-an. It sets the criteria to choose between right or wrong on which success for our eternal lives depends. Allah (God) has also warned those who ignore the criterion of severe penalties. The righteous people see signs of Allah (God) and seek to stay on His path.

 
Surah (Chapter) Fussilat (They are explained in details)
Surah (Chapter) Fussilat (They are explained in details) is the 41st chapter of the Holy Qur-an. It is a Makki Surah (Chapter) meaning that this Surah (Chapter) was revealed before the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S had migrated to Madinah. Surah (Chapter) al-Fussilat (They are explained in details) consists of fifty-four Ayat (Verses). This Surah (Chapter) reiterates the basics of Faith and the Goodness and Greatness of Allah (God). It also describes the benefits of believing in Allah (God) and His attributes.

 

Ghalizah Najasah (Serious Kind of Actual Impurity)
Human excreta such as stool urine and vaginal fluids cause Ghalizah Najasah (Serious Kind of Actual Impurity) (Serious) kind. Washing the affected area purifies the cloth before it could be worn while offering prayers.

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