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>>Glossary of Islamic Terms
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© Suhel Farooq Khan
Ghusl (Bath)
Ghusl means taking a bath. Besides being necessary for personal hygiene, Ghusl (Bath) is necessary for purifying body before performing any act of worship. Ghusl (Bath), performed in a specific manner, removes external or internal impurities of all kind from the body.  Ghusl (Bath) is not needed only for purification. Taking Ghusl (Bath) is a Sunnah (Tradition of Muhammad S). The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S had said that cleanliness is half Iman (Faith). Tayammum (Dry Wudu) could be performed for purification in place of Ghusl (Bath), if water is not available, or a person is not able to use it because of sickness or injury.  

Gregorian (The Regular) Calendar
Gregorian calendar is the normal calendar that is used all over the world. This calendar has 365 days divided into 12 months. Islamic calendar, which is also known as the Hijrah calendar, has 355 days spread over 12 months. Islamic months have 29 or 30 days depending upon the sighting of the new moon. Months of the Islamic calendar begin on the next day of the sighting of the new moon.
Hadath Asghar (Minor Impurity)
Hadath Asghar (Minor Impurity) is a kind of Najasah Hukmiyah (Effective Impurity). It is caused by passing wind, urine or stool. It is a minor problem that is corrected by relatively minor measures without taking a bath. Hadath Asghar (Minor Impurity) is removed by performing Wudu (Ablution).
Hadath Akbar (Major Impurity)

Hadath Akbar (Major Impurity) is a kind of Najasah Hukmiyah (Effective Impurity). It is caused by discharge of semen or vaginal fluids because of sexual intercourse or wet dream. It is a minor problem that cannot be corrected by relatively minor measures without taking a bath. Hadath Asghar (Minor Impurity) is removed by taking a bath in the prescribed manner.

Surah (Chapter) al-Hadid (Iron)
Surah (Chapter) al-Hadid (Iron) is the 57th chapter of the Holy Qur-an. It is a Madani Surah (Chapter) meaning that this Surah (Chapter) was revealed after the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S had migrated to Madinah. Surah (Chapter) al-Hadid (Iron) consists of twenty-nine Ayat (Verses).This Surah (Chapter) asks mankind to stay away from arrogance and pride and be humble. It also mentioned that leaving the worldly affairs might not lead to salvation. In Islam one has to seek the pleasures of Allah (God) while enjoying His bounties. 
Hadith (Saying of Muhammad S)

Life of our beloved Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S is an open book. His Sahabah (Companions) faithfully recorded and followed what ever he said or did. Plural of Hadith is Ahadith, meaning Sayings of Muhammad S. Whatever the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S said, did or approved any action or practice of his Sahabah (Companions), verbally or silently is known as Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S). Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) provide us explanations to many day-to-day phenomenon as well as a clear understanding of the Qur-an.  After the Holy Qur-an, Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) provide the most valuable source of Islamic knowledge. Following the Holy Qur-an and Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) is an essential part of Islamic faith. The Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) were transmitted faithfully to the next generation orally, they in turn passed the traditions to the next generation and so on. Scholars decided to commit the orally transmitted Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) to writing. They even evolved a very elaborate process to check the authenticity of the entire chain of narrators. Several compilations of authenticated Ahadith (Sayings of  Muhammad S) are currently available in their original form. After the Holy Qur-an, Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) play a very important role in Islam. It is a duty of Muslims to learn Islam from the Holy Qur-an and Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S).

Hady
Literal meaning of the word Hady is a gift. In Islamic terminology, Hady is used for the gift of sacrificial animals like camels, cows, sheep or goats, which pilgrims offer as a sacrifice to Allah (God).
Hajar (Hagar)
Hajar (Hagar) was the mother of Ismail A (Ishmael). She was the second wife of Ibrahim A (Abraham). Ibrahim A (Abraham) was earlier married to Sarah when he lived in Sham. He began delivering the Message of Allah (God) when He appointed him as His Rasul (Messenger). His people who used to worship stars and idols, fiercely resented and opposed him; and forced him to leave his homeland. Ibrahim A (Abraham) migrated to Filistin (Palestine) with his wife Sarah and nephew Lut A (Lot). Ibrahim A (Abraham) moved further to Misr (Egypt) with his wife while Lut A (Lot) stayed back in Filistin (Palestine). When Ibrahim A (Abraham) and Sarah did not have any child after many years of their marriage, Sarah asked him to marry Hajar (Hagar). She gave birth to Ismail A (Ishmael). Sarah did not feel comfortable in living with Hajar (Hagar) and her son Ismail A (Ishmael). She asked Ibrahim A (Abraham) to take Hajar (Hagar) and her son Ismail A (Ishmael) away from her. Ibrahim A (Abraham) took them away on a long journey and left them in a barren valley that did not have any water or vegetation, to fulfil the wish of Allah (God). Ismail A (Ishmael) became thirsty when the meager supplies left by Ibrahim A (Abraham) had finished. With her infant son Ismail A (Ishmael) in her arms, Hajar (Hagar) began to look for water. When she could not find water in the vicinity, she put her son down and looked around for water. She climbed two small hillocks and ran between in search of water. She could not find any trace of water in that hostile environment. She prayed to Allah (God) for help. Dejected, she returned to her son without water. Hajar (Hagar) was pleasantly shocked to see a spring of fresh water gushing near the feet of Ismail A (Ishmael). She thanked Allah (God) and contained the water with stones. It was the spring of Zamzam, which continues to flow today. She settled near Zamzam. Caravans traveling between Sham (Syria) and Yaman (Yemen) began stopping there. Hajar (Hagar) and her son Ismail A (Ishmael) served those caravans. Slowly, several nomadic tribes also settled down in that area. This was the beginning of the city of Makkah. Hajar (Hagar) and her son Ismail A (Ishmael) were the first inhabitants of Makkah.

Surah (Chapter) al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage)
Surah (Chapter) al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage) is the 22nd chapter of the Holy Qur-an. It is a Madani Surah (Chapter) meaning that this Surah (Chapter) was revealed after the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad A had migrated to Madinah. Surah (Chapter) al- Hajj (The Pilgrimage) consists of seventy-eight Ayat (Verses). This Surah (Chapter) mainly talks about the significance of Ka’bah and its pilgrimage. It explains that faith, purity of intent and body, prayers and humbleness are a part of the pilgrimage. Sharing resources with the less fortunate and thanking Allah (God) for His bounties are also important in life. Importance of fighting for defending the Truth when attacked, is mentioned. Serving Allah (God) and helping the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad A by being watchful of the evil is also told in this chapter.  

Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah)
Literal meanings of Hajj are to set out for a journey. The term Hajj is normally used for the annual pilgrimage to the Ka’bah, which every able-bodied adult male and female Muslim must make, if they can afford the expenses and rigors of the journey. Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah) rituals are carried out in five days starting from the 8th day of Dhul Hijjah and ending on the 12th day of Dhul Hijjah. Dhul Hijjah is the twelfth and the last month of the Islamic calendar. Rituals of Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah) are carried out in Makkah, ‘Arafat, Mina and Muzdalifah. Male pilgrims carry out Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah) in two pieces of unstitched clothes, called Ihram. Female pilgrims can perform Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah) in their regular Islamic clothes with a scarf over their heads. Name of the 22nd Surah (Chapter) of the Holy Qur-an is Surah al-Hajj. There are several types of Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah).

Hajj al-Ifrad

Ifrad literally means isolated. This term is used for a Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah) performed without ‘Umrah.
 

Hajj al-Qiran

Qiran literally means accompanied. Hajj al-Qiran is where Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah) is accompanied by ‘Umrah, performed together with the same Ihram (Special dress for Hajj), same Tawaf (Walk around the Ka’bah) and Sa‘i  (Running between Safa and Marwah).

Hajj at-Tamattu’

It is a Hajj in which a pilgrim performs ‘Umrah and Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah) separately by doing Ihram twice. After reaching Makkah, the pilgrim performs ‘Umrah and removes Ihram. The pilgrim puts on Ihram again and performs Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah) at its appropriate time.

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