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>>Glossary of Islamic Terms
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© Suhel Farooq Khan
Hajjatul Wada  (The Farewell Hajj)
Wada’ means farewell.  Hajj-atul- Wada’ means the farewell Hajj. This term is used for the last Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah) of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S. Incidentally it was also the first Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah) of Muhammad S where all rites and rituals were performed in Islamic manner. Muhammad S, the Messenger of Allah, performed his last Hajj in the year 10H (Hijrah) with more than 100,000 of his Sahabah (Companions). During this pilgrimage, Muhammad S showed and established the Islamic traditions of Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah).

Hajr Aswad (Black Stone)
Hajr means stone. Aswad means black. Hajr Aswad means Black Stone. Hajr Aswad is the round black stone mounted in the southeast corner of the Ka'bah at a height of approximately five feet. Hajr Aswad (Black Stone) is different from other stones found in the area. It Ibrahim A (Abraham) had mounted it to mark the starting point of Tawaf (Walk around the Ka’bah).Besides the foundations, it is the only stone left from the original Ka'bah built by Ibrahim A (Abraham) with the help of his elder son Ismail A (Ishmael). Thousands of years later, the Ka'bah was reconstructed when the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad A was 35 years old because it was in a valley and water from the flash floods used to damage it. Every Quraysh family wanted the honor of installing Hajr Aswad (Black Stone) in the Ka’bah. All of them were serious about it and were prepared to shed blood for the honor. When there was no solution in sight, the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S defused the situation by his wisdom. He placed the Hajr Aswad (Black Stone) on a sheet of cloth and asked the chiefs of all Quraysh clan to lift it together to the required height. He then installed it himself in the wall of the Ka’bah. All Quraysh clans were pleased because of their equal participation in that important event. The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S had kissed Hajr Aswad (Black Stone) during his last Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah), which is known as the farewell Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah).  Touching and kissing Hajr Aswad (Black Stone) during Hajj and ‘Umrah is a Sunnah (Tradition of Muhammad S).

Halal (Lawful)

Literal meanings of Halal are lawful, allowed or permitted. In Islamic context Halal means things, practices or activities approved by Allah (God), either told to us by the Holy Qur-an or our beloved, the last Rasul (Messenger) of Allah (God), Muhammad S. Halal could refer to income, food, dress, social and religious practices etc. Muslims must earn their livelihood by Halal (Lawful) means only and consume only Halal (Lawful) foods and drinks. Muslims practice only Halal (Lawful) activities in their lives. There are certain Halal (Lawful) activities, which temporarily become Haram (Unlawful) during Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah), when a pilgrim is in the state of Ihram. Some examples are hunting or killing animals in Haram (Sacred Area), having sex with spouse etc.

Halq (Shaving head)
 

Halq means shaving of head. During Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah), the male pilgrims either shave their heads or trim their hair on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah, after offering sacrifice to Allah (God). After Halq, pilgrims get out of the state of Ihram. Female pilgrims are required to trim a lock of their hair by only a digit of the finger. Term for doing Halq is Tahliq. Male pilgrims can also trim their hair instead of shaving the head.

Hanafi School of Islamic Thought
There are four major schools of thought in Islam namely, Hanafi, Maliki, Shaf’i, and Hambali, named after Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik, Imam Shaf’i, and Imam Ahmad bin Hambal, respectively. These learned scholars of Islam, made their interpretations more than 200 years after the sad demise of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S to standardize Islamic rituals and practices. All four of them agree on all major aspects of Islam and there are some minor differences of opinions on certain ritualistic aspects of Islamic religious practices. At times, those minor differences of opinion are blown out of proportion and they acquire the shape of a major conflict. Muslims normally follow one of the four Schools of Islamic thought. Muslims who have acquired in depth knowledge on Islam can pick and choose from various Schools of thoughts. Following the schools of thought mainly took place of geographical grounds. Hanafi School of Islamic thought represents the interpretation of various Islamic rituals by Imam Abu Hanifah an Nu’man ibn Thabit. Imam Abu Hanifah was born at Kufah in 80H  (Hijrah) (700 AD). He died at Baghdad in the year 150H (Hijrah).
Hambali School of Islamic Thought

There are four major schools of thought in Islam namely, Hanafi, Maliki, Shaf’i, and Hambali, named after Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik, Imam Shaf’i, and Imam Ahmad bin Hambal, respectively. These learned scholars of Islam, made their interpretations more than 200 years after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S to standardize Islamic rituals and practices. All four of them agree on all major aspects of Islam and there are some minor differences of opinions on certain ritualistic aspects of Islamic religious practices. At times, those minor differences of opinion are blown out of proportion and they acquire the shape of a major conflict. Muslims normally follow one of the four Schools of Islamic thought. Muslims who have acquired in depth knowledge on Islam can pick and choose from various Schools of thoughts. Following the schools of thought mainly took place of geographical grounds. Hambali School of Islamic thought represents the interpretation of various Islamic rituals by Imam Abu ‘Abdullah Ahmad bin Hambal. He was born at Baghdad in 164H  (Hijrah) (780 AD). He died in the year 241H (Hijrah) (855 AD).

Harmi Ahlul Haram

People living within the Haram area are called Ahlul Haram.

Haram (Unlawful)

Unlawful things and practices forbidden to Muslims are called Haram. Worshipping or asking favors from anyone else besides Allah (God), eating pork, consuming alcohol or any other intoxicants, sacrificing animals for any other than Allah (God), establishing sexual relationships outside marriage are some examples of Haram things or activities that are not allowed by Allah (God) for Muslims. Certain Halal (Lawful) activities temporarily become Haram (Unlawful) during Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah), when a pilgrim is in the state of Ihram. Some activities like hunting or killing animals in Haram (Sacred Area), having sex with spouse etc. are forbidden during the state of Ihram.

Harun A (Aaron)
Harun A (Aaron) was brother of Musa A (Moses) and also a Rasul (Messenger) of Allah (God). Musa A (Moses) had prayed to Allah (God) for making him his helper (The Qur-an 20:25-36). He is mentioned in the Holy Qur-an at many places.

Harut and Marut
Harut A and Marut A are two Mala”ikah (Angels) who were sent by Allah (God) to teach the people of Babylon so that they could guard themselves against the magic of Shaytan (Satan). Harut A and Marut A taught them magic but told them not to practice it, since it leads to Kufr (Disbelief).   [Surah al-Baqarah (The Cow) Qur-an 2:102-103].

Hasan bin ‘Ali R
Hasan R was the eldest son of Fatimah R, the youngest daughter of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, and ‘Ali bin Abu Talib R. The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S loved him dearly and used to play with him even while he used to offer prayers. Hasan bin ‘Ali R was born in the year 3H (Hijrah) (644 AD). He was elected as Khalifah (Caliph) after the death of  ‘Ali bin Abu Talib R, but abdicated it in favor of Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan R, to avoid bloodshed among Muslims. He died in the year 50H (Hijrah) (670 AD).
Surah (Chapter) al-Hashr (The Gathering)

Surah (Chapter) al-Hashr (The Gathering) is the 59th chapter of the Holy Qur-an. It is a Madani Surah (Chapter) meaning that this Surah (Chapter) was revealed after the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S had migrated to Madinah. Surah (Chapter) al-Hashr (The Gathering) consists of twenty-four Ayat (Verses). This Surah (Chapter) mentions the expulsion of the Jewish tribes from Madinah and its vicinity when they broke their pact with Muslims. Their strong forts and their secret liaison with the enemies of Islam and Muslims did not work in their favor. It also mentions many beautiful names and attributes of Allah (God).

Hawwa (Eve)

Adam A (Adam) was also the first human Allah (God) had created. Allah (God) gave Adam A (Adam) knowledge and capacity to think. Allah (God) had created Adam A(Adam) to represent good. Allah (God) had also created a partner for him and sent them to live in Jannah (Paradise). Her name was Hawwa (Eve). He told Adam A (Adam) and his wife Hawwa (Eve) to stay away from a particular tree. Iblis (Satan) succeeded in luring them to eat from that tree Contrary to the Christian belief Hawwa (Eve) representing women did not commit the original sin. Adam A (Adam) was equally responsible for it. Both of them realized their mistake; they repented and prayed to Allah (God) for His forgiveness.  Allah (God) forgave them and sent them to live on earth. Adam A (Adam) became the first Rasul (Messenger) of Allah (God) on the planet earth. All humans are descendents of Adam A (Adam) and his wife Hawwa (Eve).

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