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The Four Imam


IMAM ABU HANEEFA (80 AH - 150 A.H. 699 AD - 767 AD)
Name : Noaman

Born in 80 AH, in the period of Abdul Malik bin Marwan in Kufa. His father was Thabit. Imam Abu Hanifa's grandfather, Noaman, was the first in the family to accept Islam. His early education was under the guidance of Imam Sha’afi and Imam Ahmed Ibn Hambal. Later, he went to other places for higher education.
Properties of Fiqh-e-Hanafi :

This school is a well-coordinated efforts of around 40 Islamic scholars like. Yahya bin Abu Zaidah, Qadi Abu Yusuf, Daud Tai, etc, under the guidance of Imam Abu Haneefa and thus, it is known as Fiqh-e-Hanafi (the Hanafi school of jurisprudence). The Imam divided the Fiqh into two broad parts.

He included all those rules which were deduced from the Quran and the Hadith and dealt with all those topics, on which the Quran and the Hadith are silent. The Fiqh is logical and comparatively simple in comprehension to others. It is an extensive work that contains around six lakh rules on different subjects.

Achievements : By compiling the Fiqh with emphasis on reform he prevented future distortions. His work was impartial, as he had taken no grant from anyone.

IMAM AHMAD IBN HAMBAL (164 AH - 241/780 AD. 855 AD)
Name : Ahmad

Born in 164 AH in Baghdad, Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal was initially educated by his mother and various Islamic scholars in Baghdad. Here he studied from 179 AH to 189 AH. He conducted lectures on Islam in his house and also publicly.

Properties of Fiqh-e-Hambali

It sometime deals with a problem on which the Quran and the Hadith are silent.

Achievements

1. The Imam has provided a complete Islamic law.

2. He always expressed strong reservation on the nature and functioning of Khilafat on account
of it hearing become more a family affair than a public one.

3. He did not mix his personal thinking in the matters of Islam

4. He laid emphasis on the Sunnah in every aspect of life.

IMAM SHAFII (150 AH - 204 A.H/767 - 820 AD)
Name : Muhammad bin Idris

Born in 150 AH in Ghuzzah in Asqulan, he migrated to Mecca with his mother at the age of two. He studied and memorized the Quran in his childhood in the village of Banu Hadal under the guidance of Mufti-e-Hasan and Muslim bin Khalid Zanji. Thence he studied under Imam Malik, Muhaddis-e-Makkah, Hazrat Sufiyan bin Uyuna and Muhammad bin Alhasan.

Properties of Fiqh-e-Shafali

1. It provides a balanced line of action.

2. Though he gave priority to the Quran, he emphasized the role of the Hadith in deciding laws
and rules.

3. This Fiqh provides for more than one solution to a particular problem.

Achievements

1. It distilled rules from Islamic thought.

2. When he was only 15, he was permitted to give judgments from his teacher Mufti-e-Makkah,
Muslim Ibn Khalid.

3. He was called Nasir-ul-Hadith in Iraq for 'his excellence in the Hadith.

4. He wrote around 113 books, many of which are famous. Among them are Kitabul-Iman in 15 parts. Jame Kabir Mazni, Jame Saghir Mazni, Mukhtasar Rabi, Ar-Resala, Al-Amali, Mashad Shafil and Mukhtasar Buyuti.

IMAM MALIK (93 AH - 179 AH/715 - 795 AD)
Name : Malik and title Imam Darul Hazrat

He was born in 715 AD in Medina in the area of Banu Ummayya. His great grand father, Abu Amir, had accepted Islam in 3 AH. His was a very well educated family and he was taught by more than 50 teachers, including Imam ul Qura Nafe bin Asadur Rahman, who was the greatest Qari of all time. Another of his teachers was Shaikhul Fiqh Imam Abu Uthman Rabiyalur Ray. So great was his respect for knowledge that he rejected Khalifa Haroon Rashid’s request to teach him separately. Knowledge or wisdom, he felt was for everyone. He was very principled man and once the governor of Medina Jafar bin Salaiman, meted out 70 lashes to him for issuing a Fatwa contrary to the wishes of the governor.

Properties of Fiqh-e- Maliki

1. It followed the style in existence at Medina.

2. It concentrates mainly on Hadith and follows the normal interpretation of the Hadith.

Achievements

1. He laid a solid foundation for the interpretation of the Fiqh and provided clear guideline for the coming generations.

2. He wrote all the rules of Fiqh objectively and impartially.

3. He wrote many books like Mowta, Resala banam Haroon Rashid letter to Haroon Rashid, Ahkamul Quran, Almaddawana, Kitabul Aghdiyya, Kitabul Manasik, Tafsir Ghaibul Quran, Kitabul Majasat and Tafsirul Quran.
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