believe in all the Books that Allah (God)
gave to His various Rusul (Messengers)
at different times for guidance of mankind.
of those Rusul who were given Books by Allah
(God) are mentioned in the Holy Qur-an.
Ibrahim A (Abraham)
was given Suhuf Ibrahim,
Musa A (Moses)
was given the Torat (Torah),
Dawud A (David)
was given the Zabur (Pslams),
and 'Isa A (Jesus)
was given the Injil (Gospel).
Besides these Books, Allah (God)
has sent Guidance to all nations and people through His
time, people altered, modified, changed, falsified and edited
those Books for their own vested interests.
Everytime that happened, Allah (God)
sent another Book through another Rasul (Messenger)
for Guidance of his people. It continued till Allah
(God) sent Muhammad
S as His last Rasul (Messenger)
with His final Message - the Holy Qur-an,
as guidance for the entire mankind. Since no other Message
will now be sent, Allah (God)
guarenteed the preservation of the Holy Qur-an.
Holy Qur-an is the Word of Allah
(God). It was revealed to the last Messenger of Allah
(God), Muhammad S in
Arabic language. Although it is Guidance to the entire mankind,
only sincere and God fearing people are able to benefit
from its Guidance.
is the Book (of Allah); without any doubt there is
guidance in for those who fear Allah (God).
(The Cow) Qur-an 2:2
is the final version of
the same Message that Allah (God)
had sent earlier to mankind through many of His Rusul
Holy Qur-an is the source of all Islamic religious
beliefs and practices. It is the most read and the most
quoted book in the world. This is the only Book, which has
been miraculously memorized completely by millions of people
by heart since its revelation, who do not even know the
was revealed in small portions over a period of 23 years.
There are 114 Chapters in Qur-an. Each chapter
of Qur-an is called a Surah.
Each Surah is divided into various
Some Suwar contain more verses while others
less. Surah al-Baqarah, the
second chapter of Qur-an, is the biggest of
all. It contains 286 Ayat (Verses).
The shortest Surah of Qur-an
is Surah al-Kauthar (A
river in Paradise). It contains only three Ayat
(Verses). Though there are
other Suwar that contain only three Ayat
(Verses) but they contain more
words and lengthy sentences. The other Suwar
which contain only three Ayat
(Verses) are Surah
al-‘Asr (The Time)
and Surah an-Nasr (The
(Suwar is the plural of Surah
and Ayat is the plural of Ayah).
is also divided into thirty almost equal portions. Each
of these portions is called a Juz in Arabic.
Qur-an was revealed to the Messenger of Allah,
Muhammad S in small portions. Some portions
of the Qur-an were revealed in Makkah
while other portions of it were revealed in Madinah.
The Suwar that were revealed in Makkah,
are known as Makki Suwar. The Suwar
revealed in Madinah, are known as Madani
Makkan period of revelation was from 610 AD
to 622 AD. The Madani period was from 622
AD to 632 AD. Eighty-six (86) Suwar
were revealed in Makkah, and twenty-eight
were revealed in Madinah.
Suwar contain 4417 Ayat
Suwar contain 1819 Ayat
The total number of Ayat (Verses)
in the Hoy Qur-an is six thousand two hundred
thirty six (6,236).
Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S received
the first Wahi (Message
from Allah) in 610 AD, in the small cave
in the mountain of Hira. That mountain
is now known as Jabl Nur
(Mountain of Radiance). It
is located about two and a half miles (Approximately
Four Kilometers) away from the Ka’bah
in the city of Makkah.
the first Wahi (Message
from Allah) Muhammad
S received the first five Ayat
(Verses) of Surah
(Chapter) al-‘Alaq (The
Read in the name of your
Lord who created,
created man from a clot.
Read, for your Lord is most Generous,
Who teaches by means of the pen,
teaches man what he does not know.
(The Clot) Qur-an 96:1-5
Opening Chapter) was the first complete chapter
to be revealed and Surah an-Nasr
was the last.
the Qur-an was being revealed, Muhammad
S used to recite the revealed verses to his Sahabah
(Companions). They used to learn these
verses by heart. Some of the companions used to write them
on palm leaves, animal hides and stone tablets etc. The
and Ayat (Verses)
of Qur-an are not arranged in their chronological
order of revelation. Muhammad S used to set
the place of various Suwar (Chapters)
and Ayat (Verses)
the entire Qur-an was committed to writing
including the sequence of Suwar (Chapters)
and Ayat (Verses)
during the lifetime of Muhammad S, it was
not compiled in a single volume in the form of a book. Its
various Suwar (Chapters)
and Ayat (Verses)
were written was available with various Sahabah
(Companions) on different writing
mediums of that time.
were several designated Katib Al-Wahi
(Writers of Messages from Allah),
who used to write down the divine revelations whenever Muhammad
S narrated to them after receiving the Wahi
(Message from Allah).
the demise of the Muhammad S, many newly converted
tribes revolted. Most of them decided to follow most principles
of Islam, except the institution of Zakah
(Poor Due Charity). One cannot
pick and choose beliefs in Islam. There is
no compromise with the basic Islamic beliefs.
Abu Bakr R became the first Khalifah
(Caliph) of Muslims. Soon after
assuming this responsibility, he had to face severe challenges
in the form of several revolts. He also had to face challenges
from several claims of false Prophethood from several apostates.
He decided to firmly deal with them. He sent Muslim
armies to suppress the rebellion. As a result, many of those
Huffaz (Those who had
memorized Qur-an by heart) died.
‘Umar bin Khattab
another prominent Sahabi (Companion
of Muhammad S) pondered upon the situation.
He felt an urgent need to compile the scattered portions
of Qur-an into one volume. He suggested it
to Abu Bakr R, who was initially reluctant to undertake
such a task. His reasoning was that since Muhammad
S did not make any such compilation during his lifetime,
so how could he? But after thinking over the matter, he
agreed to ‘Umar bin Khattab
suggestion. Subsequently, a committee was set up for compiling
the Qur-an. It was headed by Zayd bin
the secretary of Muhammad S, who also was
the main Katib Wahi (Writer
of Messages from Allah). This team
compiled the Holy Qur-an in one volume. This
copy of Qur-an was verified by all Sahabah
(Companions of Muhammad S)
who used to memorize each Ayah and
Surah of the Qur-an as
it was revealed to Muhammad S.
copy of Qur-an was kept in the custody of
Hafsah bint ‘Umar R,
one of the holy wives of Muhammad S. After
Abu Bakr R, ‘Umar bin Khattab
became the second Khalifah (Caliph)
of Muslims, but he, for some reason, did not publish the
compiled version of the Qur-an.
It was during the tenure of the third Khalifah
(Caliph) of Muslims, ‘Uthman
bin ‘Affan R,
a standardized version of Qur-an was made
from the available document and its copies were sent to
all other towns and cities. The Qur-an which
we read today is the exact copy of the one published by
the third Khalifah (Caliph)
of Muslims, ‘Uthman bin
are three main themes of Qur-an, Wahdah
(Oneness of Allah),
Messengers and the finality of the Messengers) and
Akhirah (Day of Judgment
and life after death).
main emphasis of Qur-an is Tawhid
i.e. the Oneness of God, and the finality of the Messengership
of Allah, Muhammad S. Besides, it contains
the stories of previous Messengers, moral teachings and
the injunctions of Shari’ah. It also
informs us about other revealed books, about angels, about
the Last Day of Judgment and Paradise and Hell.
Qur-an is the most comprehensive book of law.
It deals with each and every aspect of human life. Its rules
are easy and simple. It does not unnecessarily stress mankind.
It does not lead to asceticism. It clearly states:
month of Ramadan in which was revealed the
Qur-an, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for
the guidance and the criterion (between right and
wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on
the first night of) the month (of Ramadan i.e.
is present at his home), he must observe Saum
(fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey,
the same number [of days which one did not observe
Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other
days. Allah intends for you ease, and He does
not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants
that you) must complete the same number (of days),
and that you must magnify Allah [i.e. to say
Allah is the Most Great) for having guided
you so that you may be grateful to Him.